Tag: finiteelementanalysis

Creating a Virtual Plastics Injection Molding Window

By Bozilla
April 27, 2022

Since the inception of plastic injection molding, creating a robust injection molding process has always been a challenge As time has progressed, the design of plastic parts has become more detailed and intricate, the tolerances have become tighter and the boundaries of injection molding standards are being pushed to their limits The combination of each one of these factors is making it more and more difficult to create and maintain a robust molding process

Initially, it wasn’t difficult to design a basic injection molding window that would result in a robust molding process However, with the advent of increasingly demanding factors it has become more difficult to design a process molding window that is large enough to be robust and create consistently good parts As a matter of fact, not only is it difficult to create a wide process molding window, it’s nearly impossible to create a suitable molding window- Period We will discuss how and why it is necessary to first create a virtual injection molding window and how that data can be translated to the floor in order to have the best injection molding window possible

Let’s begin with understanding what a molding window (or process window) is Typically, a molding window is comprised of three major factors: Fill time (or fill speed), Mold Temperature and Melt Temperature Each of these factors has the greatest impact on the injection molding process

Graphs below will illustrate the impact of each

The influence of each factor:

  • Fill Time (fill speed): As fill speed decreases, the material moves into and through the cavity slowly which allows the cooling effects of the tool steel to have more time to influence and cool the temperature of the plastic resulting in a higher viscosity response and a greater pressure to fill the cavity Conversely, as the fill speed increases, the material will shear thin (the viscosity will decrease) significantly, but ultimately the plastic will resist filling the cavity and require a greater pressure to fill the cavity Somewhere between filling extremely slow and filling extremely fast is a sweet spot that requires low pressure to fill the cavity If plotted out in a graph, it will be a u-shaped curve where the lowest point is typically a good fill speed

molding window pressure

  • Mold Temperature: The mold temperature is highly influential with regards to having the material fill the cavity The thickness of the part relative to the flow length is an important relationship with regards to the impact of the mold
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The Reality of Core Shift- Is this happening to You?

By Bozilla
March 23, 2022

Core shift is not always obvious or suspected Recently, Bozilla Corporation was called upon to investigate a part that was warping differently and more than expected The customer had a flow simulation conducted by a third party and the warpage results did not match the actual part data Sometimes part warpage does not match the flow simulation and in many cases, it is easily explained However, after a quick investigation, the underlying cause of the excessive deflection was not easily understood It was time for our Team to troubleshoot

(The animations and images presented in this article do not represent the Customers actual part file and is just an example of how core deflection occurs)

Core deflection fill time graph

To begin the investigation, we compared the floor process to the simulation, which is standard operating procedure They matched fairly well They are never a perfect match but were very close We then looked at the part data and tool design then compared it to the data utilized in the flow analysis The data matched This was good news because through process of elimination, we were nearing the target

We then began taking a closer look at the part along with the flow simulation results We noticed that there were long features extending from the core side of the tool that the polymer had to flow around and down The features were thin so they did not have cooling in them therefore it was suspected that these long cores were heating up excessively causing the polymer to stress relieve and therefore warp However, the simulation software accounted for this to some degree and we did not see a trend that suggested the hot core feature was contributing to additional deflection

Having a long history with examining many polymers and how they behave in varying geometries caused us to take a closer look at the differential pressure within the cavity as it flowed around and along the long core features We discovered a significant pressure differential that occurred on either side of the core We also learned that the polymer did not freeze uniformly around that core during the 2nd stage pack process Having differential pressure and non-uniform freezing threw up a few flags

Core shift pressure graph

We had to investigate the impact of the differential pressure and non-uniform freezing on these features We knew it was time for a core-deflection analysis The customer was fairly confident that the P-20 tool steel was robust enough to

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Key Factors in a Reliable Plastics Injection Molding Simulation Report

By Bozilla
November 30, 2021

I have written in a prior post about the key factors necessary in a plastics injection molding optimization analyst  Now, I would like to discuss the importance of a skillfully assembled simulation report  Jennifer Schmidt spoke of the key ingredients of a trustworthy injection molding simulation report in her talk at the Plastics Technology Molding 2021 conference In this brief, I will discuss the valuable information she provided and add additional feedback  If you want a successful outcome for your tool, these key components are essential to consider


Injection Molding simulation software


  • What version is being used and is the software up to date? Look for signs that the analyst is using an older version of software which will alter the results on the report, and ultimately the floor results

Typically, the output file(s) of the software contain the release version of the software  It might not be the absolute latest release of the software, but is should be a proven release which is typically a year old or less

Mesh quality for injection molding

2 Type of Mesh used: Consider the type of mesh that used for the part and the runner

  • Is the mesh type appropriate for the part geometry?
  • Is it precise enough in critical areas to capture important details?
  • Is the correct technology being used for the part geometry/runner combination, ie midplane, Dual-Domain, 3D or a specialty mesh used?
  • Will the report allow access to display the mesh?
  • Does the filling animation, weld lines and sink marks reveal insights into the mesh quality?

Consider: Simulations of the same part with the same material and same mesh density, but different mesh types for the part and runner, may produce different results for pressure at the fill-to-pack switchover point, which could make quite a difference in what occurs in an actual molding environment

There are many factors to consider and only a seasoned user with the proper education in the software will be able to make these determinations in order to provide the best analytical outcome

Material Data for injection molding


3 Material Data: An accurate molding prediction requires good material data

  • What was the material data in the simulation based on?
  • Was data on the actual material available?
  • Was the data a substitute?-a resin of the same generic family but has a
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Can Gate Location Really affect Part Warpage?

By Bozilla
August 17, 2021

Based on part geometry, gate location(s) will determine how the polymer fills the cavity  If the cavity doesn’t fill in a balanced/uniform fashion, the internal stresses will be anisotropic- meaning non-uniform properties  So it is important to place a gate in a location such that the polymer flowfront fills the cavity at a uniform rate and reaches the end of the cavity at all locations, including weld line locations, simultaneously

With simple part geometry, identifying an ideal gate location may be possible by using experience and examining the part  However, with more complex geometry and gating limitations (cooling line interference, ejector pin interference, slides, etc), it is nearly impossible to determine the appropriate gate location(s) without using FEA(flow simulation)  Not only can FEA(flow simulation) produce actual deflection results(warpage), it can also provide data that is a precursor to warpage-such as volumetric shrinkage and frozen-in stress which is typically due to a response from forcing the material into the cavity while the material is trying to freeze

gate location and part warpage courtesy of sciencedirectcom

Gate location(s) will determine polymer orientation  Based on that location, it will ultimately determine polymer shrinkage  Also, different regions of the part will cool at different rates(regions of the cavity near the gate that were first to fill will cool before regions furthest from the gate)


Why is this important?  Because there are 3 major components that contribute to warpage:

 Polymer Orientation

Polymer Shrinkage

Cooling Effects


Shrinkage and orientation are both directly correlated to injection location(s) on a part as it relates to processing conditions  Warpage due to cooling effects is  based on the rate of how the polymer cools on one side of the cavity relative to the other side Non-uniform cooling through the thickness will create warpage

Because gate location(s) directly correlates to the contributors of warpage, gate location is therefore extremely important in the tool creation process and ultimately the quality of the part

The injection molding professionals at Bozilla Corporation have over 20 years of experience assisting OEM’s, Tier 1 & Tier 2 suppliers, and Tool Shops to create quality parts that meet timing and goals



About the author

Chris Czeczuga President Bozilla Corporation

Chris Czeczuga is a Plastics Engineer, Injection molding expert, Military Veteran and the President of Bozilla Corporation He has proven success with many OEM’s Tier

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Actual Injection Molded Part differs from Analytical Prediction

By Bozilla
July 28, 2021

In this discussion, we will explore a part that was injection molded and scanned for deflection Interestingly, the actual deflection did not match that of the analyzed part Unfortunately, this can sometimes happen and when it does, it is the responsibility of the software expert to investigate why the predicted analysis results are not matching the floor results This can be a challenging task

In the engineering world, it is common to hear the phrase ‘garbage in equals garbage out’ In other words that phrase means that all inputs plugged into any set of calculations will directly influence the outcome of those calculations When it comes to FEA, having correct input data is especially critical since technical software can only be as good as what is entered into each specific section But what steps should be taken if you have ensured that the analysis is set up correctly yet, the analytical results do not match the results on the floor? In the sample study below, we will take a closer look
For this study, we will look at a part that we will call the ‘console’:

Console Fill Console DeflectionConsole


We will compare the analytical inputs to the inputs used on the floor Then, we will explore how the analytical results compare to those on the floor

In preparation for any analysis, the user must take the necessary precautions to ensure that the inputs in the mold filling software are as accurate as possible

Part model

1) Is the part model prepared so that it meets or exceeds the standards that the software supplier recommends?

Yes, the part was modeled as a 3D model and exceeds the recommended criteria

Feed system design

2) Does the feed system match the final design of the finished product?

Yes, it was designed per the specifications provided by the tool shop

Material data

3) Is the material data in the analysis the same as what is being used on the floor?


   Is the material card comprehensive ie, is it fully characterized?


Process inputs

4) Do the process inputs in the software match the floor inputs?

Yes, see the Table 1 Below

analytical process setting vs floor process setting


Once the inputs have been confirmed as optimal and correct, we inspect the results and compare them

First, we examine the filling pattern to see if it is predicted correctly
To determine the correlation of flow patterns between Moldflow and

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